Language of Poetries Balada Orang-Orang Tercinta, Empat Kumpulan Sajak, Blues Untuk Bonnie, and Sajak-Sajak Sepatu Tua Written By W.S. Rendra (A Stylistic Study)
This research used the descriptive qualitative method to analyze as detailed as possible the data related to the use of language of the poetries as stated in the objectives of this research. The data of the research were analyzed by using the semiotic structural method with hermeneutics.
The results of the research are the distinctiveness of the use of language, namely: (1) the phonemic integrations such as alliteration, assonation, euphony, cacophony, phonemic symbol, and rhyme found in the poetries of W.S. Rendra produce a beautiful rhythm and support a certain atmosphere. Alliteration, assonation, euphony, cacophony, phonemic symbol, and rhyme are only found in several lines or couplets. The patterns of phonemic integration of rhyme found in the research are those which are free or are not fixed. The beginning rhyme occurs due to the iterations of words or lines. In addition, the middle and end rhymes occur because they follow the end phonemes of the former lines. The realization of alliteration, assonantion, euphony, cacophony, phonemic symbol occurs linearly in one line or many lines in one couplet. The pattern of alliteration always occur not only at the beginning syllables but also at the end syllables, but that of assonation always occurs in the open syllable. In addition to plosive, sibilant, and lateral sounds, in the poetries of W.S. Rendra are nasal sounds also found. The realization of the beginning, middle, and end rhymes do not always occur in the couplets, but in some parts of them. Furthermore, in the poetries of W.S. Rendra there are not fixed patterns as found in old poetries.
The vocabulary employed in the poetries of W.S. Rendra is dominated with daily Indonesian vocabulary. In addition, some items of vocabulary found refer to names of places, names of figures, and addressing words. Most of the dictions are poetic, which consist of dictions with natural reality objects, private/special dictions, and general dictions to support literary devices. In terms of denotation and connotation, the poetries of W.S. Rendra use many connotative words and a small portion of denotative words, but this still makes them easy to understand. The images frequently occurring in the poetries of W.S. Rendra are visual and motion ones. The former have an effect that their meanings are more concrete and the fantasy images become clearer and more detailed. Meanwhile, the latter are more dominant so that the poetries become more alive and dynamic. Other images such as smell, audio, and taste are also present although the number is not dominant.
The figurative languages found in the poetries of W.S. Rendra include simile, epic simile, metaphor, and allegory. The most dominant ones are implicit metaphor and simile. The presence of the figurative languages makes the poetries prismatic in nature (emitting meanings very much).
The stylistics frequently occurring in the poetries of W.S. Rendra are repetition, climax, and anti climax as well in addition to a small portion of other stylistics. The dominant stylistic is repetition, and this makes the poetries look rhythmic, and give emphasis on the ideas intended by the poet. In addition, the use of the repetition stylistic specially varied with climax, anti climax, and other stylistics makes the poetries look fresher, not boring, beautiful, and interesting. The anaphoric repetition dominating the poetries of W.S. Rendra makes them more rhytmic at the beginning lines and also emphasizes the meanings of the words repeated at the beginning lines.
Visually, the poetries of W.S. Rendra are presented in couplets consisting of a number of lines which is not fixed. Some couplets with two lines through more than ten lines are found. Even, there are several poetries which are not assembled in couplets, but in lines that are arranged into one couplet from the beginning to the end of the couplet. The typography of the poetries is not arranged in certain configurations, but their lines are neatly arranged with left align. This makes the expression of ideas with language becomes smooth and flowing. The most special and prominent aspect found in the poetries of W.S. Rendra is the presence of enjambments. Nearly in all of his poetries occur enjambments. Even, there are several couplets which only consist of one sentence so that there occur many enjambments. This results in tensions and accentuates the following lines so that they are interesting to be followed in the next lines.
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