Enantiosemy of A Phraseological Unit (In the Example of the Uzbek Language)
This article is about enantiosemy, a particular and complicated phenomenon of Lexicology. It is known that enantiosemy is based on the existence of the two opposite meanings in one word and appear in the circle of a language unit. Enantiosemy exists not only in a word, but also in a phraseological unit. The existence of enantiosemy in each type of the two units is certainly distinctive. In this article the ways and types of appearance of enantiosemy in lexical and phraseological units are defined. Accordingly, the type of lexical and phraseological enantiosemy is the same. But in the semantic structure of the enantiosemic expressions the picturesqueness, subjective influence and expressiveness are main, and also, based on the figurative meanings. It distinguishes phraseological enantiosemy from lexical enantiosemy.
Phraseological enantiosemy is separated into symmetric and asymmetric, nominative and with subjective evaluation, synchronic and diachronic enantiosemy. Symmetric and asymmetric enantiosemy is indicated according to the character and volume of contradiction in the meaning of the phrase. The equality of the opposite meanings according to their character and volume performs the symmetric enantiosemy and the inappropriateness of the character and volume of the opposite meanings performs the asymmetric enantiosemy.
The appearance of the contradiction in the meaning of phraseological unit according to usual and occasional meanings indicates that the phraseological enantiosemy is nominative or with subjective evaluation. The usual phraseological opposite meaning exists in nominative enantiosemy, and the occassional phraseological opposite meaning exists in the enantiosemy with subjective evaluation.
Phraseological enantiosemy is separated into synchronic and diachronic enantiosemy according to its relationship to the present time of the language, synchronic and diachronic enantiosemy are distinguished. The contradiction in meaning appeared in a phrase in one period of the language progress implements the synchronic enantiosemy, and the opposite meanings appeared in the semantics of a phrase in the two periods of the language progress implement the diachronic enantiosemy.
The opposite meanings in the semantic structure of the phraseological unit can be more exact when defining on the basis of componential analysis.
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