Investigation of the Effect of Sodium Selenate on Acetylcholinesterase Activity under Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field
Acetylcholinestrase (AChE EC 188.8.131.52) is one of the most important enzymes in nervous system, which plays a role in Alzheimer’s disease. Selenium is a vital micronutrient and many investigations have been performed about the physiological, biochemical and behavioral effects of this element, such as postponing the Alzheimer's symptoms in the elderly and delaying the initiation signs of skin aging. Recent studies have shown that this element protects various enzymes against the toxicity caused by heavy metals such as; Pb, Al, Cu and Cd. AChE activity is altered under the influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF). In this study, the effects of ELF-EMF, with 0.3 mT field intensity and 50, 100, 217 Hz frequencies, were investigated on the AChE, in the presence of different concentrations of sodium selenate, using UV-Visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results demonstrated that the enzyme activity declined by increasing the frequency and the amount of sodium selenate. Also, significant structural changes occurred in the secondary and tertiary structures of AChE. Our results showed that with increasing the concentration of sodium selenate transition from α-helix to β-structure was appeared in the presence of ELF-EMF. In conclusion, according to changes observed in the secondary and tertiary structure of enzyme, it is proposed that these fields are able to affect the structure and dynamics of the active site gorge of AChE.
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