Towards Results-Oriented Government in Egypt: The Need For Balanced Government Sector Reform
For decades, the old command-and-control system in the public administration (bureaucratic management regime) in Egypt; gave the Public Sector Managers the message that risk would not be rewarded, that inefficiency would not be penalized, that what mattered most was complying with the current procedures, rules, and regulations. It did not matter what you did as long as you observed the rules. This means that accountability in the public (government) sector has traditionally been based solely on compliance with rules, regulations and procedures (formalism) not on final results or outcomes. Hence, such conventional public administration failed in realizing plans, policies, programs and projects necessary for sustainable development purposes, that meet people expectations. As it deals with regulatory aspects of administration such as law and order, judicial administration and revenue collection (structure oriented); while desired development administration is concerned with the socio-economic developmental activities(action oriented). Consequently, a revolutionary jargons spring all over Egypt from January 2011 and till now, against such corrupted bad governance. Therefore, the public sector in Egypt had to be deregulated to meet the arisen expectation of the people in development-especially after the topple of two presidents who had failed to realize the desired development that satisfies people needs- and to enhance the efficient management of public resources. Thus, a new results-based system based on a balanced public sector reform is needed to hold managers accountable. This is a fundamental change: holding managers accountable for what they do, not how they do it. The public sector reform initiatives (especially the New Public management–NPM) have resulted in changing the accountability concept. From accountability in terms of procedural compliance to accountability in terms of efficiency and results (effectiveness).
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