The Determinants of Retail Pharmacists Retention With a Mediating Effect of Continuance Commitment

Izzati Azmi, Sharizan Sharkawi, Nor Intan Adha


The turnover of employees is the most challenging issue facing by the organization. Retail pharmacy industry in Malaysia is also facing the same issue, especially for pharmacist position. According to the interview conducted with one of the biggest retail pharmacies in Malaysia, in 2018, 20% of their pharmacists resigned and reluctant to stay even they were offered with a higher salary or better benefits. A skilled and experienced pharmacist is very important in a pharmacy and any other health care center because they are dealing with a patient's health and safety. Newly graduate pharmacist might cause medication errors and increase the risk of patient’s safety. 155 pharmacists will be selected for this study. The sample for this study is the retail pharmacist who works in Negeri Sembilan and Pahang state. This research will focus to identify which factors (transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and procedural justice) have the most significant influences on a retail pharmacist's retention. In addition, this study will also investigate a mediating effect of continuance commitment towards the independent and dependent variables. The descriptive research design will be used as the structure of this research. This study will use the established instruments from the relevant research journal instead of developing own questions. The collected data and information from the respondents will be analyzed by using SPSS software.

Full Text:



Akhthar, M. I. (2016). Research Design. 68-84.

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of occupational psychology, 63(1), 1-18.

Asiah, A. (2018). The Factors that Influence Employee Retention and its Impact on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Job Embeddedness: A Study at the Public Sector Organizations in Malaysia.

Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1995). Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden.

Behera, N., Sahoo, C. K., & Sundaray, B. K. (2011). Retaining high performing employees through job satisfaction: A theoretical construct.

Bies, R. J., & Moag, J. F. (1986) Interactional Justice: Communication Criteria of Fairness. In: Lewicki, R.J., Sheppard, B.H. and Bazerman, M.H., Eds. Research on Negotiations in Organizations, 1, 43-55.

Buitendach, J. H., & Rothmann, S. (2009). The validation of the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire in selected organisations in South Africa. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(1), 1-8.

Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of applied psychology, 86(3), 425.

Das, B. L., & Baruah, M. (2013). Employee retention: A review of literature. Journal of Business and Management, 14(2), 8-16.

Ellickson, M. C., & Logsdon, K. (2002). Determinants of job satisfaction of municipal government employees. Public Personnel Management, 31(3), 343-358.

Greenberg, J. (1987). A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. Academy of Management review, 12(1), 9-22.

Gul, H., Rehman, Z., Usman, M., & Hussain, S. (2015). The Effect of Organizational Justice on Employee Turnover Intention with the Mediating role of Emotional Exhaustion in the Banking Sector of Afghanistan. International Journal of Management Sciences, 5(4), 272-285.

Gürbüz, S., & Mert, I. S. (2009). Validity and Reliability Tests of Organizational Justice Scale: An Empirical Study in a Public Organization. 3(3), 137-162.

Guthrie, J. P. (2001). High-involvement work practices, turnover, and productivity: Evidence from New Zealand. Academy of management Journal, 44(1), 180-190.

Hassali, M. A. A., Shafie, A. A., See, O. G., & Wong, Z. Y. (2016). Pharmacy practice in Malaysia. In Pharmacy Practice in Developing Countries (pp. 23-40). Academic Press.

Izard-Carroll, M. D. (2016). Public sector leaders' strategies to improve employee retention.

Johnson, M. (2000) Winning the People Wars: Talent and the Battle for Human Capital: Financial Times Management

Jung, D. I., & Sosik, J. J. (2002). Transformational leadership in work groups: The role of empowerment, cohesiveness, and collective-efficacy on perceived group performance. Small group research, 33(3), 313-336.

Koh, Y. H. (2018). Factors Affecting the Retention of Generation Y Workers in Food Industry (Doctoral dissertation, UTAR).

Kossivi, B., Xu, M., & Kalgora, B. (2016). Study on determining factors of employee retention. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4(05), 261.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610.

Kyndt, E., Dochy, F., Michielsen, M., & Moeyaert, B. (2009). Employee Retention: Organisational and Personal Perspectives. Vocations and Learning, 2(3), 195-215.

Lam, C. L., Law, S. F., Loo, Y. J., Ng, W. Y., & Ooi, S. L. (2015). A study on factors affecting employee retention in nursing industry at Klang Valley (Doctoral dissertation, UTAR).

Mansor, M., & Idris, A. (2015). Employee retention in the Malaysian banking industry: Do flexible practices work?. South African Journal of Business Management, 46(1), 1-9.

Market Review on Priority Sector Under Competition Act 2010 Pharmaceutical Sector. (2017). Malaysia Competition Commission (MyCC), 28-40.

Mehta, M., Kurbetti, A., & Dhankhar, R. (2014). Study on Employee Retention and Commitment. International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Management Studies, 2(2), 154 - 164.

Meyer, J. P. & Allen, N. J. (1997). Advanced Topics in Organizational Behavior: Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and applicationThousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1984). Testing the" side-bet theory" of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations. Journal of applied psychology, 69(3), 372.

Middleton, J., Harvey, S., & Esaki, N. (2015). Transformational leadership and organizational change: how do leaders approach trauma-informed organizational change… twice?. Families in Society, 96(3), 155-163.

Mohamad, A. H., Asrul, A. S., & Chua, G. N. (2013). A National Survey on the Use of Medicines (Nsum) by Malaysian Consumers. Ministry of Health Malaysia.

Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship?. Journal of applied psychology, 76(6), 845.

Moyes, G. D., & Redd, T. C. (2008). Empirical analysis of factors influencing the level of job satisfaction of Caucasian and Hispanic accounting professionals. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 7(10), 21–42.

Mwita, K. M., Mwakasangula, E., & Tefurukwa, O. (2018). The Influence of Leadership on Employee Retention in Tanzania Commercial Banks. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 8(2).

Nadeem, M. (2010). Role of training in determining the employee corporate behavior with respect to organizational productivity: Developing and proposing a conceptual model. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 206-211.

Nagarajan, A., & Thangavelu, L. (2016). Talent Retention Strategies, Organizational Commitment and Intention to Stay in Commercial Banks in Malaysia: The Moderating Role of Person-organization Fit.

Ng’ethe, J. M., Iravo, M. E., & Namusonge, G. S. (2012). Determinants of academic staff retention in public universities in Kenya: Empirical review. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(13), 205–212.

Niehoff, B. P., & Moorman, R. H. (1993). Justice as a mediator of the relationship between methods of monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management journal, 36(3), 527-556.

Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and Practice (4th. ed.). London: SAGE

Oladapo, V. (2014). The impact of talent management on retention. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(3), 19–36.

Pharmaceutical Service Programme. (2019). Register of License. Retrieved June 19, 2019, from

Pool, S., & Pool, B. (2007). A management development model: Measuring organizational commitment and its impact on job satisfaction among executives in a learning organization. Journal of Management Development, 26(4), 353-369.

Roch, S. G., & Shanock, L. R. (2006). Organizational Justice in an Exchange Framework: Clarifying Organizational Justice Distinctions. Journal of Management, 32(2), 299-322.

Siti, Q., Tan, X. F., & Doris, G. (2016). A comparison Study on the Prescribing Error in Discharge Presription from Medical Ward in a Regional Referral Hospital. Malaysia Journal of Pharmacy, 2(2), 13

Thamby, S. A., & Subramani, P. (2014). Seven-Star Pharmacist Concept by World Health Organization. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 6(2).

Thibaut, J. W., & Walker, L. (1975). Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Umoh, G. I., Amah E., & Wokocha, I. H. (2014). Employee Benefits and Continuance Commitment in the Nigerian Manufacturing Industry. Journal of Business and Management, 16(2), 69-74.

Weiss, E. M. (1999). Perceived workplace conditions and first-year teachers' morale, career choice commitment, and planned retention: A secondary analysis. Teaching and Teacher Education, 15(8), 861-879.

World Health Organization. (1994). The Role of the Pharmacist in the Health Care System. 1-37.

World Health Organization. (1998). The Role of the pharmacist in self-care and self-medication: report of the 4th WHO Consultative Group on the Role of the Pharmacist, The Hague, The Netherlands, 26-28 August 1998 (No. WHO/DAP/98.13). Geneva: World Health Organization.


Copyright (c) 2019 Izzati Azmi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Human Resource Studies  ISSN 2162-3058


Copyright © Macrothink Institute  

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.