Gratitude Inhibiting Personality Traits, Employees Social Cognition and Well-Being: Evidence from Pakistan

Kaynat Jawed, Danish Ahmed Siddiqui


This study analyzed the relationshipof gratitude on different factors such as Empathy, Self-Competence, Self-Compassion, flourishing, satisfaction with life,cynicism, narcissism, materialism and Indebtedness with the aim to find out which factor has most positive impact and which has negative impact so that organization can work on the motivation strategies for their employees accordingly.

Full Text:



Alkozei, A., Smith, R., & Killgore, W. D. (2018). Gratitude and subjective wellbeing: A proposal of two causal frameworks. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(5), 1519-1542.

Allen, A. B., & Leary, M. R. (2010). Self‐Compassion, stress, and coping. Social and personality psychology compass, 4(2), 107-118.

Ashraf-SZABIST, F., & Khan-SZABIST, M. A. Broadening the positive psychological capital construct: An Asian cultural perspective.

Baker, W. E., & Bulkley, N. (2014). Paying it forward vs. rewarding reputation: Mechanisms of generalized reciprocity. Organization science, 25(5), 1493-1510.

Baumgarten-Tramer, F. (1938). “Gratefulness” in children and young people. The Pedagogical Seminary and Journal of Genetic Psychology, 53(1), 53-66.

Belk, R. W. (1985). Materialism: Trait aspects of living in the material world. Journal of consumer research, 12(3), 265-280.

Bosacki, S., Sitnik, V., Dutcher, K., & Talwar, V. (2018). Gratitude, Social Cognition, and Well-Being in Emerging Adolescents. The Journal of genetic psychology, 179(5), 256-269.

Bryan, J. L., Young, C. M., Lucas, S., & Quist, M. C. (2018). Should I say thank you? Gratitude encourages cognitive reappraisal and buffers the negative impact of ambivalence over emotional expression on depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 253-258.

Chopik, W. J., Newton, N. J., Ryan, L. H., Kashdan, T. B., & Jarden, A. J. (2019). Gratitude across the life span: Age differences and links to subjective well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 14(3), 292-302.

Dean Jr, J. W., Brandes, P., & Dharwadkar, R. (1998). Organizational cynicism. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 341-352.

Di Fabio, A., Palazzeschi, L., & Bucci, O. (2017). Gratitude in organizations: a contribution for healthy organizational contexts. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 2025.

Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., Allan, B. A., O Donnell, M. B., Shim, Y., & Steger, M. F. (2015). Purpose and meaning in career development applications. The Counseling Psychologist, 43(4), 558-585.

Edmondson, A. C. (2002). The local and variegated nature of learning in organizations: A group-level perspective. Organization science, 13(2), 128-146.

Emmons, R. (2010). Why gratitude is good. Retrieved March, 21, 2012.

Emmons, R. (2016). The Little Book of Gratitude: Gaia.

Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: Experimental studies of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(2), 377-389.

Fehr, R., Fulmer, A., Awtrey, E., & Miller, J. A. (2017). The grateful workplace: A multilevel model of gratitude in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 42(2), 361-381.

Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of general psychology, 2(3), 300-319.

Froh, J. J., Yurkewicz, C., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences. Journal of adolescence, 32(3), 633-650.

Gordon, A. K., Musher-Eizenman, D. R., Holub, S. C., & Dalrymple, J. (2004). What are children thankful for? An archival analysis of gratitude before and after the attacks of September 11. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25(5), 541-553.

Grant, A. M., & Gino, F. (2010). A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitude expressions motivate prosocial behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 98(6), 946.

Grant, A. M., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). I won’t let you down… or will I? Core self-evaluations, other-orientation, anticipated guilt and gratitude, and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 108.

Greenberg, M. S. (1980). A theory of indebtedness. In Social exchange (pp. 3-26): Springer.

Hodges, S., & Myers, M. (2007). Empathy: Encyclopedia of social psychology (pp. 296–298). In: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Hu, X., & Kaplan, S. (2015). Is “feeling good” good enough? Differentiating discrete positive emotions at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(1), 39-58.

Huppert, F. A., & So, T. (2009). What percentage of people in Europe are flourishing and what characterises them. Paper presented at the IX ISQOLS Conference.

Lee, J.-Y., Kim, S.-Y., Bae, K.-Y., Kim, J.-M., Shin, I.-S., Yoon, J.-S., & Kim, S.-W. (2018). The association of gratitude with perceived stress and burnout among male firefighters in Korea. Personality and Individual Differences, 123, 205-208.

Lin, C.-C. (2017). The effect of higher-order gratitude on mental well-being: Beyond personality and unifactoral gratitude. Current Psychology, 36(1), 127-135.

McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J.-A. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of personality and social psychology, 82(1), 112.

McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological bulletin, 127(2), 249.

Michie, S. (2009). Pride and gratitude: How positive emotions influence the prosocial behaviors of organizational leaders. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(4), 393-403.

Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Carr, D. (2015). Educating gratitude: Some conceptual and moral misgivings. Journal of Moral Education, 44(1), 97-111.

Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Kristjansson, K. (2017). A new approach to measuring moral virtues: The Multi-Component Gratitude Measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 107, 179-189.

Neff, K. D., & McGehee, P. (2010). Self-compassion and psychological resilience among adolescents and young adults. Self and identity, 9(3), 225-240.

Nezlek, J. B., Krejtz, I., Rusanowska, M., & Holas, P. (2019). Within-person relationships among daily gratitude, well-being, stress, and positive experiences. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20(3), 883-898.

Peng, C., Nelissen, R. M., & Zeelenberg, M. (2018). Reconsidering the roles of gratitude and indebtedness in social exchange. Cognition and Emotion, 32(4), 760-772.

Pulver, S. E. (1970). Narcissism: The term and the concept. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 18(2), 319-341.

Richins, M. L., & Dawson, S. (1992). A consumer values orientation for materialism and its measurement: Scale development and validation. Journal of consumer research, 19(3), 303-316.

Richins, M. L., & Rudmin, F. W. (1994). Materialism and economic psychology. Journal of Economic Psychology, 15(2), 217-231.

Seligman, M. (2018). PERMA and the building blocks of well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(4), 333-335.

Seligman, M. E. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. Handbook of positive psychology, 2(2002), 3-12.

Solom, R., Watkins, P. C., McCurrach, D., & Scheibe, D. (2017). Thieves of thankfulness: Traits that inhibit gratitude. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(2), 120-129.

Spence, J. R., Brown, D. J., Keeping, L. M., & Lian, H. (2014). Helpful today, but not tomorrow? Feeling grateful as a predictor of daily organizational citizenship behaviors. Personnel Psychology, 67(3), 705-738.

Tafarodi, R. W., & Swann Jr, W. B. (1995). Self-linking and self-competence as dimensions of global self-esteem: initial validation of a measure. Journal of personality assessment, 65(2), 322-342.

Tsang, J.-A. (2006). The effects of helper intention on gratitude and indebtedness. Motivation and Emotion, 30(3), 198-204.

Van Boven, L. (2005). Experientialism, materialism, and the pursuit of happiness. Review of general psychology, 9(2), 132-142.

Vieselmeyer, J., Holguin, J., & Mezulis, A. (2017). The role of resilience and gratitude in posttraumatic stress and growth following a campus shooting. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9(1), 62.

Watkins, P., Scheer, J., Ovnicek, M., & Kolts, R. (2006). The debt of gratitude: Dissociating gratitude and indebtedness. Cognition & Emotion, 20(2), 217-241.

Watkins, P. C. (2014). What Inhibits Gratitude? In Gratitude and the Good Life (pp. 213-223): Springer.

Watkins, P. C., Woodward, K., Stone, T., & Kolts, R. L. (2003). Gratitude and happiness: Development of a measure of gratitude, and relationships with subjective well-being. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 31(5), 431-451.

Wood, A. M., Froh, J. J., & Geraghty, A. W. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: A review and theoretical integration. Clinical psychology review, 30(7), 890-905.

Wood, A. M., Joseph, S., & Linley, P. A. (2007). Coping style as a psychological resource of grateful people. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(9), 1076-1093.

Wood, A. M., Joseph, S., & Maltby, J. (2008). Gratitude uniquely predicts satisfaction with life: Incremental validity above the domains and facets of the five factor model. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(1), 49-54.

Wood, A. M., Maltby, J., Stewart, N., Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2008). A social-cognitive model of trait and state levels of gratitude. Emotion, 8(2), 281.


Copyright (c) 2019 Kaynat Jawed

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Human Resource Studies  ISSN 2162-3058


Copyright © Macrothink Institute  

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.