Mediating Role of Work Engagement on the Impact of High Performance Work Practices, Service Recovery Performance and Life Satisfaction in Selected Restaurants in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus

Madgaline Enow Mbi Tarkang Mary, Ruth Nange yunji, Rawan Alafeshat


Purpose – Drawing from social exchange theory, our study examine Work Engagement as a mediator of the impact of High Performance Work Practices on Service Recovery Performance and Life Satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach – Data obtained from the employees in restaurants in Famagusta region in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Structural Equation Modeling was used as the main instrument analysis to test the propose relationships.

Findings – Work Engagement is one of the immediate outcomes of High performance work practices that engenders the performance of employee and effect on Service Recovery Performance and Life Satisfaction. The findings highlight the influence Work Engagement in the intermediate linkage between High performance work practices, Service Recovery Performance and Life Satisfaction.

Practical implications – Work Engagement is a critical variable activating customer-contact employees and performance outcomes. As a suggestion, management need to attract and retain customer-contact employees who are energetic, dedicated, and are absorbed by their work.

Originality/value – Most studies on service recovery has been done in Western countries, such as Asia and Australia but little known is in the Middle East, so North Cyprus was selected to be surveyed. Furthermore a comprehensive study of High performance work practices, Work Engagement, Service Recovery Performance and Life Satisfaction is yet to be investigated simultaneously in three cities in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus.

Full Text:



Amin, M., Khairuzzaman, W., Ismail, W., Zaleha, A., Rasid, S., Daverson, A., & Selemani, R. (2014). The impact of human resource management practices on performance: Evidence from a Public University. The TQM Journal, 26(2), 125-142.

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.

Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of wellbeing: America’s perception of life quality. New York: Plenum Press.

Ashill, N. J., Rod, M., & Carruthers, J. (2008). The effect of management commitment to service quality on frontline employees’ job attitudes, turnover intentions and service recovery performance in a new public management context. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 16(5), 437–462. Association, Washington, DC, 290-312.

Babakus, E., Yavas, U., Karatepe, O. M., & Avci, T. (2003). The effect of management commitment to service quality on employees' affective and performance outcomes. Journal of the Academy of marketing Science, 31(3), 272-286.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 16(1), 74-94.

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2017). Job demands–resources theory: taking stock and looking forward. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(3), 273.

Bakker, A. B., Hakanen, J. J., Demerouti, E., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2007). Job resources boost work engagement, particularly when job demands are high. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 274-284.

Bal, P. M., de Lange, A. H., Zacher, H., & Van der Heijden, B. I. (2013). A lifespan perspective on psychological contracts and their relations with organizational commitment. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(3), 279-292.

Barkhuizen, N., Rothmann, S., & Van De Vijver, F. J. (2014). Burnout and work engagement of academics in higher education institutions: Effects of dispositional optimism. Stress and Health, 30(4), 322-332.

Barling, J., Kelloway, E. K., & Iverson, R. D. (2003). High-quality work, job satisfaction, and occupational injuries. Journal of applied psychology, 88(2), 276.

Bass, Bernard M. (1990). From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision Organizational Dynamics.

Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. (2005). Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research. Human Resource Management Journal, 15(3), 67–94.

Boshoff, C., & Allen, J. (2000). The influence of selected antecedents on frontline staff’s perceptions of service recovery performance. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(1), 63-90.

Boshoff, C., & Allen, J. (2000). The influence of selected antecedents on frontline staff’s perceptions of service recovery performance. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(1), 63-90.

Brislin, R. W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments.

Combs, J., Liu, Y., Hall, A., & Ketchen, D. (2006). How much do high-performance work practices matter? A meta-analysis of their effects on organizational performance. Personnel Psychology, 59(3), 501-528.

De Cuyper, N., Notelaers, G., & De Witte, H. (2009). Transitioning between temporary and permanent employment: A two-wave study on the entrapment, the stepping stone and the selection hypothesis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82, 67-88.

Deaton, A. (2008). Income, Health and Well-Being around the World: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2), 53-72.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.

Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.


Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75.

Food and Drug Administration. (2009). FDA report on the occurrence of foodborne illness risk factors in selected institutional foodservice, restaurant, and retail food store facility types.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American sociological review, 161-178.

Gronroos, C. (1988). Service quality: The six criteria of good perceived service. Review of business, 9(3), 1.

Guerci, M., Montanari, F., Scapolan, A., & Epifanio, A. (2016). Green and nongreen recruitment practices for attracting job applicants: exploring independent and interactive effects. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(2), 129-150.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Advanced diagnostics for multiple regression: A supplement to multivariate data analysis.

Hakanen, J. J., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). Do burnout and work engagement predict depressive symptoms and life satisfaction? A three-wave seven-year prospective study. Journal of affective disorders, 141(2-3), 415-424.

Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms.

Jeong, M., & Lee, S. A. (2017). Do customers care about types of hotel service recovery efforts? An example of consumer-generated review sites. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 8(1), 5-18.

Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Hu, J., & Baer, J. C. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms. Academy of management Journal, 55(6), 1264-1294

Karatepe, O. (2013) High-performance work practices and hotel employee performance:The mediation of work engagement. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32(2013) 132–140.

Karatepe, O. M. (2011). Procedural justice, work engagement, and job outcomes: evidence from Nigeria. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 20(8), 855–878.

Karatepe, O. M. (2013). High-performance work practices, work social support and their effects on job embeddednessand turnover intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(6), 903 – 921.

Karatepe, O. M., & Aga, M. (2012). Work engagement as a mediator of the effects of personality traits on job outcomes: A study of frontline employees. Services Marketing Quarterly, 33(4), 343–362

Karatepe, O. M., & Vatankhah, S. (2015). High-performance work practices, career satisfaction, and service recovery performance: a study of flight attendants. Tourism Review, 70(1), 56-71.

Keaveney, S. M. (1995). Customer Switching Behavior in Service Industries: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Marketing, 58(April), 71-82.

Keser, A. (2005). İş doyumu ve yaşam doyumu ilişkisi: Otomotiv sektöründe bir uygulama. Çalışma ve Toplum, 4(1), 77-95.

Kim, H. J., Tavitiyaman, P., & Kim, W. G. (2009). The effect of management commitment to service on employee service behaviors: the mediating role of job satisfaction .Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 33(3), 369–390.

Kim, T., Jung-Eun Yoo, J., & Lee, G. (2012). Post-recovery customer relationships and customer partnerships in a restaurant setting. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(3), 381-401.

Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.).New York: The Guilford Press.

Lavelle, J. J., Rupp, D. E., & Brockner, J. (2007). Taking a multifoci approach to the study of justice, social exchange, and citizenship behavior: The target similarity model. Journal of management, 33(6), 841-866.

Liao, H. (2007). Do it right this time: The role of employee service recovery performance in customer-perceived justice and customer loyalty after service failures. Journal of applied psychology, 92(2), 475.

Linley, P. A., Maltby, J., Wood, A. M., Osborne, G., & Hurling, R. (2009). Measuring happiness: The higher order factor structure of subjective and psychological well-being measures. Personality and individual differences, 47(8), 878-884.

Macky, K., & Boxall, P. (2007). The relationship between ‘high-performance work practices’ and employee attitudes: an investigation of additive and interaction effects. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(4), 537-567.

Maxham III, J. G. (2001). Service recovery's influence on consumer satisfaction, positive word-of-mouth, and purchase intentions. Journal of business research, 54(1), 11-24.

Messersmith, J. G., Patel, P. C., Lepak, D. P., & Gould-Williams, J. S. (2011). Unlocking the black box: Exploring the link between high-performance work systems and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6), 1105.

Mowday, R., Porter, L., & Steers, R. (1982). Employee–organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. New York: Academic Press.

Nishii, L. H., Lepak, D. P., & Schneider, B. (2008). Employee attributions of the “why” of HR practices: Their effects on employee attitudes and behaviors, and customer satisfaction. Personnel psychology, 61(3), 503-545.

Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2007). Fundamentals of human resource management.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994).Validity. Psychometric theory, 99-132.

Palmer, B., Donaldson, C., & Stough, C. (2002). Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Personality and individual differences, 33(7), 1091-1100.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of applied psychology, 88(5), 879.

Rod, M., & Ashill, N. J. (2010). Management commitment to service quality and service recovery performance: a study of frontline employees in public and private hospitals. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 4(1), 84-103.

Sahranç, Ü. (2007). Stres kontrolü, genel öz-yeterlik, durumluk kaygı ve yaşam doyumuyla ilişkili bir akış modeli. Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara.

Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600–619.

Salanova, M., Agut, S., & Peiro, J. M. (2005). Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: The mediating role service climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1217-1227.

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 701– 716.

Schaufeli, W. B., Martinez, I., Marques-Pinto, A., Salanova, M., & Bakker, A. (2002a). Burnout and engagement in university students: A cross-national study. Journal of Cross-cultural Studies, 33, 464-481.

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness studies, 3(1), 71-92.

Silber, I., Israeli, A., Bustin, A., & Zvi, O. B. (2009). Recovery strategies for service failures: The case of restaurants. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 18(7), 730-740.

Smith, A. K., Bolton, R. N., & Wagner, J. (1999). A model of customer satisfaction with service encounters involving failure and recovery. Journal of marketing research, 36(3), 356-372.

Sobel, M. E. (1982), “Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation. Sociological Review, 25(2), 161-178.

Sun, L. Y., Aryee, S., & Law, K. S. (2007). High-performance human resource practices, citizenship behavior, and organizational performance: A relational perspective. Academy of management Journal, 50(3), 558-577.

Takeuchi, R., Lepak, D. P., Wang, H., & Takeuchi, K. (2007). An empirical examination of the mechanisms mediating between high-performance work systems and the performance of Japanese organizations. Journal of Applied psychology, 92(4), 1069.

Van De Voorde, K., Paauwe, J., & Van Veldhoven, M. (2012). Employee well‐being and the HRM–organizational performance relationship: a review of quantitative studies. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14(4), 391-407.

Van Vaerenbergh, Y., & Orsingher, C. (2016). Service recovery: An integrative framework and research agenda. Academy of Management Perspectives, 30(3), 328-346.

Wu, W. Y., Qomariyah, A., Sa, N. T. T., & Liao, Y. (2018). The Integration between Service Value and Service Recovery in the Hospitality Industry: An Application of QFD and ANP. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 75, 48-57.

Yalabik, Z. Y., Popaitoon, P., Chowne, J. A., & Rayton, B. A. (2013). Work engagement as a mediator between employee attitudes and outcomes. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(14), 2799-2823.

Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. Journal of marketing, 60(2), 31-46.


Copyright (c) 2019 Madgaline Enow Mbi Tarkang Mary, Ruth Nange yunji, Rawan Alafeshat

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Human Resource Studies  ISSN 2162-3058


Copyright © Macrothink Institute  

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.