Bloom’s Taxonomy, Backward Design, and Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development in Crafting Learning Outcomes

Abdunassir Sideeg


This article aims to present some fresh insights into one of the milestones in the field of education. For sixty years, Bloom’s taxonomy has been one of the most significant tools used in course design as it provides a rigorous framework for crafting learning outcomes and designing both assessment tasks and instructional activities aligned with these learning outcomes. Though not a panacea for all problems of course design and educational assessment, when meticulously understood and wisely used in a student-centered environment which integrates the taxonomy with other useful approaches and tools such as backward design and Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD), Bloom’s taxonomy could provide an invaluable and indispensable roadmap for crafting effective learning outcomes that drive the whole process of course design.  

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